1. Does the computer have intelligence?
Prevalence and spread of utilization of computers is changing our world. Computer network and digital technology will bring us into an informationized and digitized age. When people are continuously surprised at the high tempo of computer technology, the application of computers seems to reach its ultimate. People are already used to calling the computer "cyberbrain" (The word computer is called Dian Nao in Chinese language, meaning electronic brain or cyberbrain.) for a long time, but they have neglected the fact that no matter how powerful and useful the computer is, it is only an idiot with super abilities.
Strictly speaking, the computer can implement given commands only, while human brain processes all information it receives from sense organs. Here the "given commands" means acceptable or executable inputs to computer programs. Obviously, implementing commands is fundamentally different from processing information.
This does not deny that the computer is capable of processing information. What I mean is that processing information by human brain is a different concept from that by the computer. Actually, processing information by the computer is also referred to as executing given commands.
There are two cases in implementing commands. One is to go all programmed, so it does not need any intelligence. This is the way the computer does. The other case needs to explore, discover, adopt or work out programs, rules or laws. For example, the process of doing assignments by students is to execute the commands by their teachers, and that of making out a program by a programmer is to execute the commands by his boss. The latter case certainly needs intelligence.
Software and hardware of computers have not evolved spontaneously. Computer programs are made by man according to the conclusions of natural laws, rules and social experiences. People are always confronted with a great amount of new circumstances and problems necessary to explore and solve, but people are often unable to find existing programs or do not know which programs to adopt to deal with them. To deal with these things really needs intelligence. Now we get a rather perplexed conclusion: All those that computers can deal with no longer need intelligence, but those that computers are unable to deal with do need intelligence to process. However it is true! It is the determination of essence of intelligence. Thus, will the computer never possess intelligence? Be patient, please.
Computer programs concentrate the conclusions of human experiences, and their essence is rational or reasoning. "Rational" embodies the properties theoretical, orderly, precise, digital, conclusive, regular, common, public, reasoning and logic, just like an operating manual for people to do things. Obviously, intelligence is not used to solve such rationalized things, because anything that is already regulated or programmed does not need intelligence at all. Consequently we can conclude: No matter how powerful the computer is, if it works only through given programs, it is not regarded as to have intelligence.